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Vesicoureteral Reflux Epidemiology

Vesicoureteral Reflux Epidemiology

Abstract. Background: The prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux in normal children has been estimated to be 0.4% to 1.8%. Based on epidemiological data, it can be estimated that 2.2% of girls and 0.6% of boys may be found to have reflux as a result of the investigation of urinary tract infection.

What is the most common complication of vesicoureteral reflux?

Kidney damage is the primary concern with vesicoureteral reflux. The more severe the reflux, the more serious the complications are likely to be. Complications may include: Kidney (renal) scarring.

Is VUR a birth defect?

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and it is the most common urological anomaly in children. Primary VUR is a congenital condition caused by the abnormal development and malfunction of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ).

Can adults get vesicoureteral reflux?

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) mostly affects newborns, infants and young children ages two and under, but older children and (rarely) adults can also be affected. Children who have abnormal kidneys or urinary tracts are more likely to have VUR. The condition is more common in girls than in boys.

Can VUR cause kidney failure?

Continual UTIs can permanently damage the kidney

When a child has VUR, urine backs up into the kidney. Sometimes the urine contains bacteria that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). Bacteria in the kidney can lead to damage over time, which may eventually lead to kidney failure and/or high blood pressure.

What is the Ureterorenal reflex?

[ yu-r??t?-r?-r??n?l ] n. Reflux of urine from the ureter into the pelvis of the kidney.

Does VUR cause hydronephrosis?

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backup of urine from the bladder (organ that stores urine) into the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) during urination. VUR may result in urine reflux into the renal pelvis, causing distention (hydronephrosis) and kidney damage.

Can a UTI cause acid reflux?

More detail is in the main article. Vesicoureteral reflux is when urine flows the wrong way, back towards the kidneys. It usually affects infants and young children but it can happen at any age. It is associated with urinary tract infections (UTI), but it is usually caused by a faulty valve that is present from birth.

How is vesicoureteral reflux diagnosed?

VUR is most often found when a child has a UTI. Reflux is found with a test called a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), which is an X-ray of the bladder. It takes about 15 to 20 minutes, and involves: Placing a catheter (a thin plastic tube) in the urethra.

Is VUR a rare disease?

Familial vesicoureteral reflux is a rare, non-syndromic urogenital tract malformation characterized by the familial occurrence of retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the ureter and sometimes the kidneys.

Is VUR serious?

Doctors usually rank VUR as grade 1 through 5. Grade 1 is the mildest form of the condition, and grade 5 is the most serious. VUR causes urine to flow back up through the urinary tract, often leading to urinary tract infections. VUR can cause urinary tract infections (UTI) and, less commonly, kidney damage.

Can vesicoureteral reflux be cured?

In summary, vesicoureteral reflux is a relatively common disease which can be benign if treated appropriately. It can also have significant consequences if ignored. Most children will be cured with a few years of antibiotic prophylaxis, treatment of voiding dysfunction, surgery or a combination.

Can reflux nephropathy be reversed?

Reflux nephropathy is kidney damage (nephropathy) due to urine flowing backward (reflux) from the bladder toward the kidneys; the latter is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Reflux nephropathy
Specialty Urology

What is a cystourethroscopy procedure?

Cystourethroscopy is a procedure that allows your provider to visually examine the inside of your bladder and urethra. This is done using either a rigid or flexible tube (cystoscope), which is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder.

Can urine go back into kidney?

Each ureter has a one-way valve where it enters the bladder that prevents urine from flowing back up the ureter. But in some people, urine flows back up to the kidney. This is called vesicoureteral reflux. Over time, the kidneys may be damaged or scarred by this reflux.

What is Stage 4 renal reflux?

In Grade IV VUR, the ureter, the renal pelvis and calyces are dilated. In Grade V VUR there is severe dilation of the ureters, renal pelvis and calyces.

What causes reflux nephropathy?

Reflux nephropathy is a direct consequence of VUR or other urologic congenital anomalies stemming from chronic high-pressure sterile urine reflux and often leads to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in early childhood.

What is the surgery for urine reflux?

Vesicoureteral kidney reflux surgery, also called ureteral reimplantation, is performed to correct this condition and prevent further occurrences of VUR.

What is splay phenomenon?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In physiology, splay is the difference between urine threshold (the amount of a substance required in the kidneys before it appears in the urine) and saturation, or TM, where saturation is the exhausted supply of renal reabsorption carriers.

Can vesicoureteral reflux cause kidney stones?

Urolithiasis is relatively common in children, and identifiable predisposing factors for stone formation, including metabolic and structural derangements, can be established in most cases. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common cause of kidney stone formation.

Can kidney problems cause acid reflux?

Can Kidney Disease Cause Acid Reflux? Although acid reflux may be more common among those with kidney disease, there’s no proven link between kidney disease and an increased risk of acid reflux.

Can acid reflux cause flank pain?

Vesicoureteral reflux occasionally causes mild flank pain due to distention of the ureter and renal pelvis when the reflux occurs while voiding.

Can acid reflux make you feel weak and shaky?

Shock-like symptoms, including sudden weakness, dizziness, fainting or confusion demand that you go to the emergency room immediately. Barring other causes, your symptoms may stem from severe acid reflux.

What physiological changes can occur with excessive antacid usage?

Extensive use of aluminum-containing antacids may cause hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels in the blood), which in severe cases could lead to muscle weakness, anorexia, and osteomalacia (softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization).

What happens if a UTI goes untreated for a week?

What Happens to an Untreated UTI? If your UTI goes untreated, it may progress into a more serious infection. An untreated bladder infection can become a kidney or prostate infection. These infections are more serious, because they can travel through the blood stream causing sepsis.

What prevents retrograde flow of urine?

Urine normally travels in one direction (forward, or anterograde) from the kidneys to the bladder via the ureters, with a 1-way valve at the vesicoureteral (ureteral-bladder) junction preventing backflow.

What causes urine backflow?

What Causes VUR? A flap valve is located where the ureter joins with the bladder. Usually, the valve allows only a one-way flow of urine from the ureters to the bladder. But when that flap valve doesn’t work right, this allows the backflow of urine.

Is VUR a chronic kidney disease?

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is commonly identified in pediatric patients and can be associated with reflux nephropathy (RN), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and rarely end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

When is surgery needed for VUR?

VUR Grade 4-5

Children who have grade 4 and 5 reflux may require surgery. During the procedure, the surgeon will create a flap-valve apparatus for the ureter that will the urine from flowing into the kidney. In more severe cases, the scarred kidney and ureter may need to be surgically removed.

What causes neurogenic bladder?

In neurogenic bladder, the nerves that carry messages back-and-forth between the bladder and the spinal cord and brain don’t work the way they should. Damage or changes in the nervous system and infection can cause neurogenic bladder. Treatment is aimed at preventing kidney damage.

What happens if ureter is damaged?

If either ureter doesn’t work properly, urine can back up into the kidney and cause damage. A blockage (obstruction) where the ureter connects to the kidney or bladder. This prevents urine flow.

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