Ultra Sensitive Detection of Iron Disorders Using Nanosensors

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Ultra Sensitive Detection of Iron Disorders Using Nanosensors

How do nanosensors work?

Nanosensors typically work by monitoring electrical changes in the sensor materials. For example, carbon nanotube-based sensors work in this way. When a molecule of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is present, it will strip an electron from the nanotube, which in turn causes the nanotube to be less conductive.

What are nanosensors in medicine?

The nanosensors provide understanding into a person’s health status through noninvasive detecting of clinically relevant biomarkers in several biofluids such as tears, saliva, and sweat without sampling, complex manipulation, and treatment steps.

What does iron deficiency do?

Without enough iron, your body can’t produce enough of a substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen (hemoglobin). As a result, iron deficiency anemia may leave you tired and short of breath.

What is iron in your body?

Iron is a major component of hemoglobin, a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to all parts of the body. Without enough iron, there aren’t enough red blood cells to transport oxygen, which leads to fatigue.

What can nanosensors detect?

Nanosensors can be used to detect chemical or mechanical information such as the presence of chemical species and nanoparticles or monitor physical parameters such as temperature on the nanoscale.

What is a Nanofilm used for?

Nanoclays and nanofilms are in use as barrier materials to prevent spoilage by microbes and oxygen absorption. These specific films are used to prevent and reduce the possibility of food drying and spoilage.

What are nanosensors based on?

Nanosensors based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

The metal ions form nodes that bind the arms of the linkers together to form a repeating, cage-like structure. Due to this hollow structure, MOFs have an extraordinarily large internal surface area, which makes them ideal materials for gas sensing.

Why do we need nanosensors?

A nanosensor can be defined as a device that communicates information about the behaviour of particles at the nanoscale level to the macroscopic level. Basically, the purpose of a nanosensor is to convey data and information from the nanoscale (Nanoscopic Scale) to the Macroscopic scale (observable to the naked eye).

How will nanosensors be used in the future?

Potential applications for nanosensors include medicine, detection of contaminants and pathogens, and monitoring manufacturing processes and transportation systems, etc.

What are bio nanosensors?

A biological nanosensor is usually composed of (i) a biological recognition system or bioreceptor, such as an antibody, an enzyme, a protein or a DNA strain, and (ii) a transduction mechanism, e.g., an electrochemical detector, an optical transducer, or an amperometric, voltaic or magnetic detector.

What diseases cause low iron levels?

Some of the most common causes of iron deficiency anaemia are outlined below.
  • Monthly periods. In women of reproductive age, periods are the most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia. …
  • Pregnancy. …
  • Gastrointestinal blood loss. …
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. …
  • Chronic kidney disease. …
  • Other causes.

What does a ferritin test show?

Ferritin is a blood protein that contains iron. A ferritin test helps your doctor understand how much iron your body stores. If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates your body’s iron stores are low and you have iron deficiency. As a result, you could be anemic.

What diseases cause low ferritin?

Summary of Diseases Associated With Lower Ferritin
  • Anemia [2]
  • Fatigue [3]
  • Hair loss [4, 5, 6, 7]
  • Fibromyalgia [8]
  • IBD [9]
  • Hypothyroidism [10]
  • Depression [11]
  • Anxiety [12]

Is iron part of hemoglobin?

The most common cause of anemia worldwide is iron deficiency. Iron is needed to form hemoglobin, part of red blood cells that carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from the body. Iron is mostly stored in the body in the hemoglobin.

What is dangerously low ferritin levels?

Ferritin: usually low in iron deficiency. Less than 10 is virtually diagnostic of iron deficiency anemia, while levels between 10 and 20 are suggestive.

Which fruit has maximum iron?

Summary: Prune juice, olives and mulberries are the three types of fruit with the highest iron concentration per portion. These fruit also contain antioxidants and a variety of other nutrients beneficial to health.

When were nanosensors first used?

Nanosensors (company)
Product type Nanotechnology AFM probes AFM tips AFM cantilevers
Introduced 1993
Markets worldwide
Tagline The World Leader in Scanning Probes

2 more rows

What are biosensors used for?

Biosensors are used for the detection of pathogens in food. Presence of Escherichia coli in vegetables, is a bioindicator of faecal contamination in food. E. coli has been measured by detecting variation in pH caused by ammonia (produced by ureaseE.

What are optical nanosensors?

Optical nanosensors have been designed to utilise the sensitivity of fluorescence for making quantitative measurements in the intracellular environment, using devices that are small enough to be inserted into living cells with a minimum of physical perturbation.

What is the business of NanoFilm?

NanoFilm is a leading provider of nanotechnology solutions in Asia, leveraging our proprietary technologies, underpinned by our core competencies in R&D, engineering and production, to provide nanotechnology solutions across a wide range of industries.

What is NanoFilm IPO price?

Since its market debut at an IPO price of S$2.59, Nanofilm shares more than doubledtouching a record high of S$6.53 on July 26and then retreating. The rally boosted Shi’s net worth, catapulting him to the just published Singapore’s Rich List with a net worth of $1.8 billion.

Who is NanoFilm biggest customer?

Nanofilm has also indicated in its prospectus that ‘Customer Z‘ is its biggest customer.

What is nanosensors in agriculture?

Nanosensors in agriculture are used to detect the humidity of soil, pesticide residue, nutrient requirement and crop pest identification. The low limit of detection and high sensitivity of nanosensors make them more useful for smart agriculture.

Who created nanosensors?

The the novel self-sensing and self-actuating probe was invented at SAMLAB, the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) of the University of Neuchtel, Switzerland, by Dr. Terunobu AKIYAMA in 2001. The probe is named the Akiyama-Probe or A-Probe to honor its inventor.

How is nanotechnology used in sensor?

How can nanotechnology improve chemical and biological sensors? Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors.

What is the use of remote sensing satellites?

Remote sensing satellites are also called Earth observation satellites or Earth remote sensing satellites. They’re used as spy satellites or for environmental monitoring, meteorology, and cartography. The most common type are Earth-imaging satellites, which take satellite images similar to aerial photographs.

Which of the following is an example of nanosensor used in diagnostics?

For example, nanotubes, nanowires, thin platted films, nanorods and nanocantilevers impart versatility, high-sensitivity and selectivity in nanosensors detection systems. Such sensitive detection systems can be used in the area of health research to discover unusual disease related biomarkers.

What is principle of remote sensing?

Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth’s surface. The amount of radiation from an object (called radiance) is influenced by both the properties of the object and the radiation hitting the object (irradiance).

Are nanosensors expensive?

For the immediate future, nanosensors could be relatively expensive, with high manufacturing costs for sensors and actuators. If we can achieve high volumes and low-cost products, the markets could be huge.

How are nanosensors made?

The nanosensor is made from a carbon nanotube (plastic)/cement composite. A very interesting component of the application is that the nanotube/cement sensor composite could be used as pavement, which could also measure traffic flow (Nano-Tech-Views, n.d.).

What are carbon nanotubes?

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical large molecules consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of hybridized carbon atoms, which may by formed by rolling up a single sheet of graphene (single-walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs) or by rolling up multiple sheets of graphene (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs).

What are the types of Nanobiosensors?

Nanobiosensors: Variations and Types

Similarly, nanobiosensors are called nanotube based sensors if they involve carbon nanotubes as enhancers of the reaction specificity and efficiency while biosensors using nanowires as charge transport and carriers are termed as nanowire biosensors.

What is the meaning of nanobiotechnology?

Nanobiotechnology is a new field of science that introduces special physicochemical and biological properties of nanostructures and their applications in various areas such as medicine and agriculture.

What nanomaterials are used in biosensors?

Various kinds of nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles [7], carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [8], magnetic nanoparticles [9] and quantum dots [10], are being gradually applied to biosensors because of their unique physical, chemical, mechanical, magnetic and optical properties, and markedly enhance the sensitivity and …

What are the 6 types of anemia?

They include:
  • Iron deficiency anemia. This most common type of anemia is caused by a shortage of iron in your body. …
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia. …
  • Anemia of inflammation. …
  • Aplastic anemia. …
  • Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. …
  • Hemolytic anemias. …
  • Sickle cell anemia.

What is symptomatic anemia?

Symptomatic anemia exists when hemoglobin content is less than meets the oxygen-carrying demands of the body. If anemia develops slowly, there may be no functional impairment even though the hemoglobin is less than 7 g/100/dL of blood. Anemia is not a disease but a symptom of other illnesses.

How is iron-deficiency anemia diagnosed?

Iron-deficiency anemia is diagnosed by blood tests that should include a complete blood count (CBC). Additional tests may be ordered to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin, iron, total iron-binding capacity, and/or transferrin.

What cancers cause high ferritin levels?

In addition to breast cancer, the serum ferritin level has also been found to be elevated in patients with lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, leukemia, and lymphoma, and the level was closely associated with the prognosis.

What is the difference between iron and ferritin?

What is the difference between iron and ferritin? Iron is an important mineral present in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells in the body. Ferritin on the other hand is a protein that stores iron and releases iron when the body needs it.

Why is serum ferritin high?

Higher than normal ferritin levels can mean you have too much iron in your body. Conditions that cause increased iron levels include liver disease, alcohol abuse, and hemochromatosis, a disorder that can lead to cirrhosis, heart disease, and diabetes.

What cancers cause low ferritin levels?

In a study published in July 2013 in the Annals of Oncology, iron deficiency was most commonly seen in people with pancreatic cancer (present in 63 percent of participants), followed by colorectal cancer (52 percent) and lung cancer (51 percent).

Is ferritin a tumor marker?

Ferritin was previously proposed as a tumor marker for RCC. In order to determine whether RCC cells actually produce ferritin, we studied ferritin levels in serum from peripheral and renal veins as well as from the tumor tissue and the healthy parenchyma from radical nephrectomy specimens of 22 patients with RCC.

Can low ferritin cause neurological symptoms?

Our findings show that nutritional iron deficiency produces these molecular alterations in a region-specific manner and provide new insight into the variety of molecular pathways that can lead to distinct neurological symptoms upon iron deficiency.

What is the difference between iron and hemoglobin?

It’s common for people to think that iron and haemoglobin are the same thing, but they’re actually quite different. Iron is a component of haemoglobin and is also found in other parts of the body. It’s possible to have a normal haemoglobin level but be low in iron.

What is high iron called?

Hemochromatosis, also called iron overload, is a condition in which your body stores too much iron.

What are the three functions of iron?

Iron contributes to:
  • The normal energy-yielding metabolism (energy production) …
  • The reduction of tiredness and fatigue. …
  • Your normal cognitive function. …
  • The normal function of the immune system. …
  • The normal oxygen transport in the body. …
  • The normal creation of red blood cells and haemoglobin. …
  • The process of cell division.

What are the symptoms of low ferritin?

Low ferritin levels
  • unexplained fatigue.
  • dizziness.
  • chronic headaches.
  • unexplained weakness.
  • ringing in your ears.
  • irritability.
  • leg pains.
  • shortness of breath.

How is ferritin deficiency treated?

Doctors treat low ferritin levels with oral iron supplements. For severe cases of anemia, a person may require treatment with intravenous iron. For the best results, people should take oral iron supplements with a source of vitamin C to increase iron absorption.

How can I raise my ferritin levels quickly?

Citrus fruits, chilies, and green leafy vegetables are good sources of vitamin C. Lean Meat: Lean meat is a great source of haem iron and can aid in helping you attain optimal ferritin levels sooner. If you’re wondering how to increase ferritin levels, haem iron is a sure-shot way to do it.

Is milk rich in iron?

Dairy products such as cheese, cottage cheese, milk and yogurt, although rich in calcium, have negligible iron content. It is important to eat a variety of foods every day.

Is banana rich in iron?

Iron content in bananas is low, approximately 0.4 mg/100 g of fresh weight. There is a strategy of developing modified lines of bananas to increase their iron content; the target is a 3- to 6-fold increase.

What foods are iron blockers?

The following foods can interfere with iron absorption:
  • tea and coffee.
  • milk and some dairy products.
  • foods that contain tannins, such as grapes, corn, and sorghum.
  • foods that contain phytates or phytic acid, such as brown rice and whole-grain wheat products.
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