Surface Attachment of Biological Elements

Surface Attachment of Biological Elements

An important part in a biosensor is to attach the biological elements to the surface of the sensor. The simplest way is to functionalize the surface in order to coat it with the biological elements.

What are biological analytes?

Analyte: A substance of interest that needs detection. For instance, glucose is an ‘analyte’ in a biosensor designed to detect glucose. Bioreceptor: A molecule that specifically recognises the analyte is known as a bioreceptor.

What are the components of biosensors?

Overview. The important components of a biosensor are (1) a bioreceptor (e.g., enzymes, antibody, microorganism, or cells); (2) a transducer of the physicochemical signal, and (3) a signal processor to interpret the information that has been converted.

What is biological recognition process?

Biological recognition is the phenomenon whereby two biological molecules interact specifically without permanent chemical bonds forming between them. It is mediated by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds, which are weaker bonds that can be easily formed and broken.

What is biological sensor?

A biosensor is defined as a device that produces a measurable signal proportional to the concentration of the target analyte, usually incorporating a biological sensing element and measuring signals derived from biological interactions (Turner, 2013).

Which electrode is used in biosensor?

These electrodes should be both conductive and chemically stable. Therefore, platinum, gold, carbon (e.g. graphite) and silicon compounds are commonly used, depending on the analyte [4, 17].

What are examples of analytes?

  • Alcohol.
  • Ammonia.
  • Ethanol.
  • Glucose.
  • Glutamine.
  • Glycerol.
  • Lactate.
  • Lactose.

Which of the following interacts with analytes in biosensing?

16.2 Basics of biosensors

Sample analyte interacts with recognition elements such as receptors, antigens, antibodies, nucleic acid, proteins, enzymes, etc., which when fed into transducer (electrochemical, optical, calorimetric).

What is biosensor example?

A good example of a biosensor in frequent use is the glucose oxidase enzyme. The enzyme is immobilized on an electrode surface which acts as an electrocatalyst for oxidation of glucose. The biosensor gives reproducible electrical signal for glucose concentrations as low as 0.15 mM.

What are Biorecognition molecules?

Naturally occurring biorecognition elements, such as antibodies and enzymes, are biologically derived constructs that take advantage of naturally-evolved physiological interactions to achieve analyte specificity.

How many types of transducers are there?

There are two main types of transducers based on whether or not they need an external power source. These are active and passive transducers. An active transducer is one that does not require any power source in order to function.

What is application of biology in biosensor technology?

Combination of biological materials, such as enzyme/substrate, antibody/antigen and nucleic acids, brought revolution to optical biosensor technology. In addition, it is also possible to incorporate microorganisms, animal or plant cells and tissue sections in the biosensing system.

What is a biosensor PDF?

Biosensor is a device that consists of two main parts: A bioreceptor and a transducer. Bioreceptor is a biological component that recognizes the target analyte and transducer is a physicochemical detector component that converts the recognition event into a measurable signal.

What is the principle of potentiometric electrochemical sensors?

Potentiometric sensors are based on polymeric membrane ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and ion-selective field effect transistors (ISFET), measuring the potential change at one electrode against another. In fact, this analytical technique has been routinely used for physiological testing of key electrolytes [112].

How does a potentiometric biosensor work?

Potentiometric biosensors are developed by combining a biorecognition element (essentially an enzyme) with a transducer that senses the variation in protons (or other ions) amount, the recorded analytical signal being logarithmically correlated with the analyte concentration.

What is electrochemical sensor?

Electrochemical sensors, in particular, are a class of chemical sensors in which an electrode is used as a transducer element in the presence of an analyte. Modern electrochemical sensors use several properties to detect various parameters in our everyday lives, whether physical, chemical, or biological parameters.

What are the analytes in clinical chemistry?


The tests in a clinical chemistry laboratory measure concentrations of biologically important ions (salts and minerals), small organic molecules and large macromolecules (primarily proteins).

Is glucose an analyte?

An analyte is a substance or chemical constituent that is determined in an analytical procedure, such as a titration. For instance, in an immunoassay, the analyte may be the ligand or the binder, while in blood glucose testing, the analyte is glucose.

What’s analyte concentration?

(an’?-l?t) A material or substance the presence or concentration of which in a specimen is determined by analysis.

Which type of biosensor is called Enfet *?

Bio-FETs are classified based on the bio recognition element used for detection: En-FET which is an enzyme-modified FET, Immuno-FET which is an immunologically modified FET, DNA-FET which is a DNA-modified FET, CPFET which is cell-potential FET, beetle/chip FET and artificial BioFET-based.

Which electronic device is used in biosensors Mcq?

Explanation: The biological signals must be converted into electrical signals. Transducers are used for this purpose.

Where are biosensors used?

Biosensors are used in the food industry to measure carbohydrates, alcohols and acids, for example, during quality control processes. The devices may also be used to check fermentation during the production of beer, yoghurt and soft drinks.

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