Seafloor Depth Was First Determined By What Remote Sensing Technology?

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What did the maps of the ocean floor produced by Bruce Heezen and Marie Tharp reveal about seafloor topography?

What did the maps of the ocean floor produced by Bruce Heezen and Marie Tharp reveal about seafloor topography? There are ridges in the middle of the ocean basin floors. … There were gaps in the data that were used to make the map because the tracks of the ships collecting the data were widely spaced.

What do the paleomagnetic data of the seafloor reveal?

What do the paleomagnetic data of the seafloor reveal? There is a mirror image of polarity reversals on either side of mid-ocean ridges. … The movement of seawater downward with the subducting plate lowers the melting point of the oceanic plate. Which action is associated with the western coast of South America?

What was the contribution of Marie Tharp to earth science quizlet?

Marie discovered a rift valley where magma came from inside the earth on the length of a mountain range. This lead to the confirmation of seafloor spreading and the eventual acceptance of continental drift now called plate tectonics.

How are Earth’s geographic and magnetic axis oriented relative to each other quizlet?

How are Earth’s geographic and magnetic axes oriented relative to each other? Earth’s geographic and magnetic axes are oriented at a slight angle to each other. … The seafloor magnetic pattern is best described as: parallel to and symmetric about mid-ocean ridges.

What technology allowed Bruce Heezen and his team to collect data about the depth of the ocean floor?

In fact before World War II we knew less about the shape of the seafloor than we did about the shape of the surface of the Moon! The use of sonar allowed Bruce Heezen to take continuous measurements of the distance to the ocean floor. Back on land Marie sorted out all the data into detailed and beautiful maps.

What did Heezen and tharps map reveal about the bottom of the ocean?

But when Tharp and her colleague Bruce Heezen published the first map of the Atlantic in 1957 Tharp’s drawings revealed that the seafloor is instead covered in canyons ridges and mountains.

What does the paleomagnetic record on the oceanic plates elucidate?

Paleomagnetism also provides evidence to support theories in plate tectonics. Because the ocean floor is mostly composed of basalt an iron-rich substance containing minerals that align with the magnetic field they record the alignment of the magnetic fields surrounding oceanic ridges.

How did paleomagnetic stripes help to prove that the ocean floor is spreading at a mid ocean ridge?

Magnetic reversals show up as bands of alternating polarity in the slowly spreading seafloor. … This explanation of magnetic striping by paleomagnetism convinced scientists that new oceanic crust was being continually formed at mid-oceanic ridges. Seafloor spreading was accepted as a reality.

What causes paleomagnetic stripes to form on the ocean floor?

Magnetic stripes are the result of reversals of the Earth’s field and seafloor spreading. New oceanic crust is magnetized as it forms and then it moves away from the ridge in both directions. The models show a ridge (a) about 5 million years ago (b) about 2 million years ago and (c) in the present.

What was Marie Tharp’s contribution to plate tectonics quizlet?

What was Marie Tharp’s contribution towards to the advancement of plate tectonics? She discovered the ocean spreading ridges. She correctly hypothesize that the ocean ridges are spreading centers where new seafloor is created.

How do oceanic ridges differ from continental mountain ranges?

How do oceanic ridges differ from continental mountain ranges? Most mountain ranges form through the collisions of two continents whereas oceanic ridges form when material upwells from the mantle and generates new oceanic crust.

How is sea surface height determined from the radar pulses from satellites?

The sea surface height (SSH) is calculated through altimetry satellites which determine the distance from the satellite to a target surface by measuring the satellite-to-surface round-trip time of a radar pulse. The satellites then measure the distance between their orbit altitude and the surface of the water.

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Which feature is associated with oceanic oceanic convergence?

The features of an ocean-ocean subduction zone are the same as those of an ocean-continent subduction zone except that the volcanic arc will be a set of islands known as an island arc. The older plate subducts into a trench resulting in earthquakes. Melting of mantle material creates volcanoes at the subduction zone.

Which geographic features form as a result of oceanic and continental convergent plates?

Deep ocean trenches volcanoes island arcs submarine mountain ranges and fault lines are examples of features that can form along plate tectonic boundaries. Volcanoes are one kind of feature that forms along convergent plate boundaries where two tectonic plates collide and one moves beneath the other.

Which part of the earth is responsible for generating the planet’s magnetic field?

The magnetic field is generated by electric currents due to the motion of convection currents of a mixture of molten iron and nickel in the Earth’s outer core: these convection currents are caused by heat escaping from the core a natural process called a geodynamo.

What did Tharp and Heezen discover from their seafloor mapping of the North Atlantic ocean using the new sonar technology?

More importantly Tharp and Heezen discovered that the ocean floor was not flat but covered with various kinds of geological features like canyons ridges and mountains just like on the Earth’s above-ground continents.

What was discovered in 1953 using sonar in the middle of the Atlantic ocean?

That was the case in 1953 when a young geologist named Marie Tharp made a map that vindicated the controversial theory of plate tectonics. But Tharp’s discovery of the 10 000-mile-long Mid-Atlantic Ridge*—a find that showed that the sea floor was spreading—was initially dismissed as “girl talk.”

What technology is used to map the seafloor?

Sonar
Dive and Discover : Oceanographic Tools: Sonar. Echo sounding is the key method scientists use to map the seafloor today. The technique first used by German scientists in the early 20th century uses sound waves bounced off the ocean bottom.

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What is the process where the ocean floor sinks below the deep ocean trench and back into the mantle?

Subduction is the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle.

What method did they use to make the first detailed map of the ocean floor?

Sonar

Using Sonar. The first modern breakthrough in sea floor mapping came with the use of underwater sound projectors called “sonar” which was first used in World War I.

When was the first complete map of the seafloor published?

Beginning in 1957 Tharp and her research partner geologist Bruce Heezen began publishing the first comprehensive maps that showed the main features of the ocean bottom — mountains valleys and trenches.

How was polar wandering discovered?

The study of polar wandering began in the early 20th century with Austrian priest and geologist Damian Kreichgauer and German scientists Wladimir Köppen and Alfred Wegener who proposed the first paths of geomagnetic North Pole migration.

What is paleomagnetic evidence?

Paleomagnetism is the study of the ancient magnetic field of both rocks and the Earth as a whole. Paleomagnetism has provided very strong quantitative evidence for polar wander and continental drift. … This magnetism is caused by the alignment of the magnetic field of the magnetic minerals within a rock.

What is the first lines of evidence suggesting the existence of plate tectonics?

One of the first lines of evidence suggesting the existence of plate tectonics was the discovery of very similar fossils in rock masses separated by vast distances and by ocean expanses. It suggested that those land areas had in the past been connected.

What new technology was used to map the seafloor beginning in the 1940s and 1950s?

Magnetic striping and polar reversals

Beginning in the 1950s scientists using magnetic instruments (magnetometers) adapted from airborne devices developed during World War II to detect submarines began recognizing odd magnetic variations across the ocean floor.

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How did researchers determine the ages of the seafloor crust?

Scientists can determine the age of the seafloor by examining the changing magnetic field of our planet. Every once in a while the currents in the liquid core which create the Earth’s magnetic field reverse themselves: it is called a geomagnetic reversal. … This is how scientists determine the age of the seafloor.

How do scientists measure the depth of the seafloor?

The most common and fastest way of measuring ocean depth uses sound. Ships using technology called sonar which stands for sound navigation and ranging can map the topography of the ocean floor. The device sends sound waves to the bottom of the ocean and measures how long it takes for an echo to return.

How do magnetic stripes prove seafloor spreading?

When lava gets erupted at the mid-ocean ridge axis it cools and turns into hard rock. … This creates a symmetrical pattern of magnetic stripes of opposite polarity on either side of mid-ocean ridges. These patterns of stripes provide the history of seafloor spreading.

How do magnetic strips show the history of Earth’s magnetic field?

As rocks crystallize from lava at the ridges they literally record the magnetic field of the Earth at the time of their creation. … The two parts of the oceanic plate are pulled apart and magnetic stripes become older as they move away from the mid-ocean ridge.

What causes polar wandering?

True polar wander represents the shift in the geographical poles relative to Earth’s surface after accounting for the motion of the tectonic plates. This motion is caused by the rearrangement of the mantle and the crust in order to align the maximum inertia with the current rotation axis (fig.

What was the contribution of Marie Tharp to earth science quizlet?

Marie discovered a rift valley where magma came from inside the earth on the length of a mountain range. This lead to the confirmation of seafloor spreading and the eventual acceptance of continental drift now called plate tectonics.

Where is the deepest region in the ocean group of answer choices?

Ocean trenches

The Mariana Trench for example is the deepest place in the ocean at 36 201 feet.

Which of the following statements accurately describes active continental margins?

Which statement accurately describes active continental margins? They are regions of great geological stability. They are areas of frequent earthquakes and volcanoes where lithospheric plates are converging.

Which ship was involved in the first global comprehensive study of the Earth’s oceans starting in 1872?

Modern oceanography began with the Challenger Expedition between 1872 and 1876. It was the first expedition organized specifically to gather data on a wide range of ocean features including ocean temperatures seawater chemistry currents marine life and the geology of the seafloor.

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