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Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology

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Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology

What is the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease seen in high-income countries, and has a heterogeneous prevalence worldwide: it is highest in North America (140/100,000 population) and Europe (108/100,000), and lowest in East Asia (2.2/100,000 population) and sub-Saharan Africa (2.1/100,000).

What demographic is most affected by multiple sclerosis?

Age: Most people are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50, although MS can occur in young children and older adults. Geography: In general, MS is more common in areas farthest from the equator.

Why is MS more prevalent in cold climates?

Growing evidence suggests vitamin D may play a role in MS, because vitamin D is thought to support immune function. Indeed, research has found that MS becomes more common the farther away from the equator a person lives, likely because people there are exposed to less sunshine.

What percentage of the world has multiple sclerosis?

What percentage of the population has multiple sclerosis? It is hard to determine the exact percentage of people who have MS across the globe. Roughly 2.8 million people around the world have MS. With a worldwide population of roughly 7.6 billion, that means that the percentage of people with MS is approximately 0.03%.

What is multiple sclerosis pathophysiology?

Pathophysiology. Early in the disease course, MS involves recurrent bouts of CNS inflammation that results in damage to both the myelin sheath surrounding axons as well as the axons themselves. Histologic examination reveals foci of severe demyelination, decreased axonal and oligodendrocyte numbers, and glial scarring.

What epidemiology means?

By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).

What are usually the first signs of MS?

Common early signs of multiple sclerosis (MS) include:
  • vision problems.
  • tingling and numbness.
  • pains and spasms.
  • weakness or fatigue.
  • balance problems or dizziness.
  • bladder issues.
  • sexual dysfunction.
  • cognitive problems.

Is MS an autoimmune disease?

The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It’s considered an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues. In the case of MS , this immune system malfunction destroys the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord (myelin).

What is multiple sclerosis CDC?

Multiple sclerosis is an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the central nervous system. Symptoms range from numbness and tingling to blindness and paralysis, and there is currently no cure for MS.

Is multiple sclerosis genetic?

Causes of multiple sclerosis

your genes MS isn’t directly inherited, but people who are related to someone with the condition are more likely to develop it; the chance of a sibling or child of someone with MS also developing it is estimated to be around 2 to 3%

Why are females at higher risk for MS?

Women typically carry more fat on their bodies than men, and obesity rates are higher for women as well. Belly fat, in particular, is associated with increased inflammation. Carrying extra body weight may be especially risky for women.

Why is MS an autoimmune disease?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease. With these conditions, your immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells. In people with MS, the immune system attacks cells in the myelin, the protective sheath that surrounds nerves in the brain and spinal cord.

What’s the lifespan of someone with MS?

Average life span of 25 to 35 years after the diagnosis of MS is made are often stated. Some of the most common causes of death in MS patients are secondary complications resulting from immobility, chronic urinary tract infections, compromised swallowing and breathing.

Is MS worse in summer or winter?

The factor that was consistently associated with severity of MS symptoms was melatonin. Melatonin levels are known to correlate with day length. During the longer days of the spring and summer, levels are lower. During the shorter days of the fall and winter, levels are higher.

What does vitamin D do for MS?

Research over the years has shown that maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D may have a protective effect and lower the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). A number of studies have shown that people who get more sun exposure and vitamin D in their diet have a lower risk of MS .

How does MS affect your legs?

Over time, your muscles can get weaker and weaker. Some people with MS find that their muscles tire more easily than usual. For example, someone with MS might find that their legs might start to feel unstable or they may have trouble moving them after periods of exercise, like walking.

Which country has the highest rate of multiple sclerosis?

Canada is the country with the highest rate of MS in the world, Statistics Canada reports, and while there are theories as to why that is, the ultimate cause of MS remains a mystery.

Where is the highest rate of MS in the world?

Canada has the highest rate of multiple sclerosis in the world. MS is a chronic, often disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord. It is the most common neurological disease of young adults in Canada.

What country is multiple sclerosis most prevalent?

Canada continues to have one of the highest rates of MS in the world with over 90,000 people living with MS – 1 in every 400 people.

What are the four stages of MS?

What are the 4 stages of MS?
  • Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) This is the first episode of symptoms caused by inflammation and damage to the myelin covering on nerves in the brain or spinal cord. …
  • Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) …
  • Secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) …
  • Primary-progressive MS (PPMS)

What kind of diseases is multiple sclerosis?

MS is an autoimmune condition. This is when something goes wrong with the immune system and it mistakenly attacks a healthy part of the body in this case, the brain or spinal cord of the nervous system. In MS, the immune system attacks the layer that surrounds and protects the nerves called the myelin sheath.

Why is it called multiple sclerosis?

The Latin word for scar is sclerosis. Thus, the term multiple sclerosis was chosen to describe the appearance of the brain in patients who died with this illness. Pathologists call these scars plaques.

What are the two types of epidemiology?

Epidemiologic studies fall into two categories: experimental and observational.

What are the 5 main objectives of epidemiology?

In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.

What are the 5 W’s of epidemiology?

The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W’s: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how).

Where does MS usually start?

Here’s where MS (typically) starts

Optic neuritis, or inflammation of the optic nerve, is usually the most common, Shoemaker says. You may experience eye pain, blurred vision and headache.

Does MS occur suddenly?

Most commonly, MS starts with a vague symptom that disappears completely within a few days or weeks. Symptoms can appear suddenly and then vanish for years after the first episode, or in some cases never reappear. The symptoms of MS vary greatly and can range from mild to severe. Most people suffer minor effects.

When should you suspect multiple sclerosis?

People should consider the diagnosis of MS if they have one or more of these symptoms: vision loss in one or both eyes. acute paralysis in the legs or along one side of the body. acute numbness and tingling in a limb.

Are people with MS immunocompromised?

Having MS does not automatically mean that you are immunocompromised. However, some disease modifying therapies (DMTs) used to treat MS do alter your immune system and certain groups of people with MS are more susceptible to having a severe case of COVID-19.

What can be mistaken for multiple sclerosis?

Here are some of the conditions that are sometimes mistaken for multiple sclerosis:
  • Lyme Disease. …
  • Migraine. …
  • Radiologically Isolated Syndrome. …
  • Spondylopathies. …
  • Neuropathy. …
  • Conversion and Psychogenic Disorders. …
  • Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) …
  • Lupus.

What blood tests would indicate MS?

While there is no definitive blood test for MS, blood tests can rule out other conditions that cause symptoms similar to those of MS, including lupus erythematosis, Sjogren’s, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, some infections, and rare hereditary diseases.

What are symptoms of MS in a woman?

Symptoms of MS in females
  • Vision problems. For many people, a vision problem is the first noticeable symptom of MS. …
  • Numbness. Numbness in the face, body, arms, or legs is another common symptom of MS. …
  • Fatigue. …
  • Bladder problems. …
  • Bowel problems. …
  • Pain. …
  • Cognitive changes. …
  • Depression.

What environmental factors cause multiple sclerosis?

Environmental Factors
  • Geographic gradient. MS is known to occur more frequently in areas that are farther from the equator. …
  • Vitamin D. Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays an important role in MS. …
  • Smoking. The evidence is also growing that smoking plays an important role in MS. …
  • Obesity.

What can trigger MS?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) triggers include anything that worsens your symptoms or causes a relapse.

Here are some of the most common triggers you may experience with MS and tips to avoid them.
  1. Stress. …
  2. Heat. …
  3. Childbirth. …
  4. Getting sick. …
  5. Certain vaccines. …
  6. Vitamin D deficiency. …
  7. Lack of sleep. …
  8. Poor diet.

Can you prevent multiple sclerosis?

It cannot be totally prevented, as there are some risk factors for the condition that you cannot change, such as your age and genetics. However, making some changes to your lifestyle can help reduce your risk of developing MS.

Is multiple sclerosis becoming more common?

The estimated number of people with MS worldwide has increased to 2.8 million in 2020. When applying the same methodology as in 2013, the estimate is 30% higher than in 2013. The 2020 global prevalence is 35.9 [95% CI: 35.87, 35.95] per 100,000 people.

How many kinds of multiple sclerosis are there?

There are three main types of MS – relapsing, primary progressive and secondary progressive. MS affects everyone differently. Even if you have the same type of MS as someone else, you probably won’t experience the same symptoms in the same way.

What does MS pain feel like?

Neuropathic pain happens from short circuiting of the nerves that carry signals from the brain to the body because of damage from MS. These pain sensations feel like burning, stabbing, sharp and squeezing sensations. In MS you can experience acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain.

What does an MS flare feel like?

Increased fatigue. Tingling or numbness anywhere on the body. Brain fog, or difficulty thinking. Muscle spasms.

Can you have a clear MRI and still have MS?

Although MRI is a very useful diagnostic tool, a normal MRI of the brain does not rule out the possibility of MS. About 5 percent of people who are confirmed to have MS do not initially have brain lesions evidenced by MRI.

How long does MS take to disable you?

Most symptoms develop abruptly, within hours or days. These attacks or relapses of MS typically reach their peak within a few days at most and then resolve slowly over the next several days or weeks so that a typical relapse will be symptomatic for about eight weeks from onset to recovery. Resolution is often complete.

Can you lead a normal life with MS?

You may have to adapt your daily life if you’re diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), but with the right care and support many people can lead long, active and healthy lives.

Does MS progressively get worse?

Over time, symptoms stop coming and going and begin getting steadily worse. The change may happen shortly after MS symptoms appear, or it may take years or decades. Primary-progressive MS: In this type, symptoms gradually get worse without any obvious relapses or remissions.

Are cold feet a symptom of MS?

If you have multiple sclerosis (MS) and often feel like your feet are cold, even when they’re warm to the touch, you’re experiencing a symptom known as dysesthesia.

Is Raynaud’s common with MS?

Doctors believe that MS can cause blood vessels in your hands and feet to overreact to cold temperatures. If you have MS, you may also be at risk for Raynaud’s phenomenon, a condition in which your fingers and toes lose heat. They turn from white to blue to red as the blood begins flowing again.

Can MS affect your thyroid?

In this regard, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been shown to have an increased susceptibility to develop chronic autoimmune thyroid diseases, in particular Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), suggesting an autoimmune predisposition.

Can B12 deficiency cause MS?

Attention has been focused recently on the association between vitamin B12 metabolism and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several recent reports have documented vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with MS. The etiology of this deficiency in MS is unknown.

Can you take zinc with MS?

Supplements that stimulate the immune system should be avoided in high doses. Those include selenium, zinc, B1, B2, folic acid, B6, vitamin A, biotin, magnesium, copper, and manganese. The effectiveness of these is not supported by studies in MS.

Can weather affect MS?

Many people with MS experience a temporary worsening of their symptoms when the weather is very hot or humid, or when they run a fever. These temporary changes can result from even a slight elevation in core body temperature (one-quarter to one-half of a degree).

What were your first signs of MS?

Common early signs of multiple sclerosis (MS) include:
  • vision problems.
  • tingling and numbness.
  • pains and spasms.
  • weakness or fatigue.
  • balance problems or dizziness.
  • bladder issues.
  • sexual dysfunction.
  • cognitive problems.

What does MS leg pain feel like?

It often occurs in the legs. Paraesthesia types include pins and needles, tingling, shivering, burning pains, feelings of pressure, and areas of skin with heightened sensitivity to touch. The pains associated with these can be aching, throbbing, stabbing, shooting, gnawing, tingling, tightness and numbness.

Why is MS pain worse at night?

Spasticity is one of the most common MS symptoms, and often feels worse at night. This is because it can be aggravated by reduced movement, tight muscles and pain from other symptoms.

Why is MS so prevalent in Alberta?

It is well established that rates of MS are high in Canada, particularly in the Prairie Provinces and Nova Scotia. Research suggests that MS results from a complex interaction between genetics and the environment. Alberta has prevalence rates similar to those in Scandinavia and northern areas of Russia and Europe.

Why is MS more common in Scotland?

MS is especially prevalent in Scotland where Kearns is based, which makes it an ideal environment for conducting research. There’s a big opportunity in Scotland to expand on what we know about MS. Initiatives by the Scottish Government have contributed to an environment that’s conducive to researching MS.

Is MS considered a rare disease?

Multiple sclerosis(MS) is a rare disease, characterized by chronic course with intermittent relapses, usually ending up with a severe debilitation [1]. Therefore, once diagnosed, patients with MS are forced to live with it for the rest of their lives, leading to significant health, social, and economic problems [2, 3].

What does vitamin D do for MS?

Research over the years has shown that maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D may have a protective effect and lower the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). A number of studies have shown that people who get more sun exposure and vitamin D in their diet have a lower risk of MS .

What country has the least cases of MS?

Canada showed the highest prevalence, at 168 people per 100,000, and the highest incidence, at 5.63 per 100,000. At the other end of the scale, the island nation of Maldives had the lowest prevalence and incidence, at 1.52 and 0.09 per 100,000 people, respectively.

Is multiple sclerosis hereditary?

Causes of multiple sclerosis

your genes MS isn’t directly inherited, but people who are related to someone with the condition are more likely to develop it; the chance of a sibling or child of someone with MS also developing it is estimated to be around 2 to 3%

Why is MS so prevalent in Canada?

Another reason is the disease’s invisibility. While the disease can be diagnosed in men and women at any age, the average in Canada is 32 years. Women are more likely to be diagnosed, while men are more likely to experience more debilitating forms of it.

Why are females at greater risk for MS?

Mowry says that the rising incidence of MS among women may relate to body fat. Obesity is epidemic in the U.S., with over a third of American adults at a body mass index of 30 or higher. Women typically carry more fat on their bodies than men, and obesity rates are higher for women as well.

What’s the lifespan of someone with MS?

Average life span of 25 to 35 years after the diagnosis of MS is made are often stated. Some of the most common causes of death in MS patients are secondary complications resulting from immobility, chronic urinary tract infections, compromised swallowing and breathing.

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