Maxillofacial Injuries

Maxillofacial Injuries

Occurrence. Maxillofacial traumais any injury to the face or jaws. Facial trauma may present with skin lacerations, burns, obstruction to the nasal cavity or sinuses, damage to the orbital (eye) sockets, fracture to the jawbone, and missing or broken teeth.

What are the signs that are present in maxillofacial trauma cases?

Signs and symptoms include:
  • Evidence of facial trauma.
  • Bleeding from the ear.
  • Swelling of the joint area.
  • Facial asymmetry.
  • Pain and tenderness in the joint area.
  • Changes of the bite.
  • A shift of the lower jaw midline.
  • Limited mouth opening.

What is the major cause of maxillofacial injury?

The common causes of maxillofacial fractures worldwide are motor vehicle accidents, falls, assaults, firearm injuries, sports, and industrial accidents (4).

What causes maxillofacial?

Maxillofacial trauma is usually caused by: Assault (most common; domestic violence is an important cause; alcohol may be involved). Road traffic accidents (midface fractures can occur). Falls.

Which doctor treats facial trauma?

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are trained, skilled and uniquely qualified to manage and treat facial trauma. Injuries to the face, by their very nature, impart a high degree of physical, as well as emotional, trauma.

What is the most common type of facial injury?

Nasal fractures (broken nose) are the most common. Fractures to other facial bones can also occur. You might only have one fracture, or you might have several broken bones.

What is a maxilla fracture?

A maxilla fracture happens when the maxilla becomes cracked or broken. This often happens due to injuries to the face, such as from falling, a car accident, getting punched, or running into an object.

What happens if the zygomatic bone is damaged?

Fractures of the ZMC or zygomatic arch can often lead to unsightly malar depression, which should be corrected to restore a normal facial contour. ZMC fractures can also cause significant functional issues, including trismus, enophthalmos and/or diplopia, and paresthesias of the infraorbital nerve.

What is mandibular fracture?

Mandibular fracture, also known as fracture of the jaw, is a break through the mandibular bone. In about 60% of cases the break occurs in two places. It may result in a decreased ability to fully open the mouth. Often the teeth will not feel properly aligned or there may be bleeding of the gums.

How do you describe facial injury?

Facial injuries include injuries involving the mouth, face and jaw. These range from facial cuts and lacerations to more serious problems, such as broken teeth and facial bones. Bone fractures can involve the lower or upper jaw, palate, cheekbones and eye sockets.

Can facial injury cause swelling?

Facial injuries may be caused by a direct blow, penetrating injury, or fall. Pain may be sudden and severe. Bruising and swelling may develop soon after the injury.

How do I know if I have fractured my cheekbone?

What are the symptoms of facial fractures?
  1. pain.
  2. excessive salivation.
  3. difficulty swallowing.
  4. swelling.
  5. malocclusion (improper meshing of the upper and lower jaw and teeth)
  6. skin discoloration.
  7. visible jaw deformity.
  8. nosebleed.

How do you treat facial injuries?

  1. Control bleeding.
  2. Create a clear airway.
  3. Treat the fracture and fix broken bone segments.
  4. Prevent scars, if possible.
  5. Prevent long-term double vision or sunken eyes or cheek bones.
  6. Rule out other injuries.

Can a facial fracture heal on its own?

Often, a facial fracture may be left to heal on its own. No treatment may be necessary if the broken bones stay in a normal position, but injuries causing severe fractures may need to be surgically repaired.

What are the different kinds of facial injuries?

They are on staff at local hospitals and deliver emergency room coverage for facial injuries, which include the following conditions:
  • Facial lacerations.
  • Intraoral lacerations.
  • Avulsed (knocked out) teeth.
  • Fractured facial bones (cheek, nose, or eye socket)
  • Fractured jaws (upper and lower jaw)

How do you know if your skull is fractured?

Symptoms of a skull fracture include:
  1. tenderness.
  2. swelling.
  3. skull deformity.
  4. bruising around the eyes or behind the ear.
  5. clear fluid leaking from the nose or ear.

What is the second most common facial fracture?

In patients who require surgery, the most commonly fractured bone is the mandible (41.675.2%) [1, 13, 15]. The second and third most commonly fractured bones vary with the series, being the maxilla and orbit (39.8% each) in one series [1] but the malar bone (15.2%) and maxilla (6.4%) in another [15].

How do I know if my nose injury is serious?

Go to a hospital’s emergency department immediately if any of the following signs or symptoms are present:
  1. Bleeding for more than a few minutes from one or both of the nostrils.
  2. Clear fluid draining from the nose.
  3. Other injuries to the face or the body.
  4. Loss of consciousness (fainting)
  5. Severe or unrelenting headaches.

Can you fracture your maxilla?

Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractures are common emergencies and require urgent assessment and treatment to avoid mortality and morbidity.

How do you fix a broken maxilla?

Treatment of maxillary fractures

Surgery typically involves fixation with screws and plates. After surgery, the jaws may need to be immobilized but often for only a few days, after which people should eat only soft foods for several weeks.

How long does it take for a broken maxilla to heal?

Although the plates and screws hold your jaw in place it still takes about six weeks for your jaw to heal completely. During this time you need to eat soft food only. Your surgeon will give you advice on this. You must be careful to avoid another injury as it may push your jaw out of position again.

What is malar fracture?

The term malar complex fracture refers to a fracture which in its classic form primarily involves the suture lines of the zygomatic bone.

How long does it take for a zygomatic bone to heal?

Cheekbone fractures rarely get infected, so you will not usually need antibiotics. Swelling and bruising can be reduced by using cold packs and sleeping propped up for the first few days. Even if you have plates and screws to hold your cheekbone in place, it still takes about six weeks for the bone to heal completely.

How do you tell if you break your zygomatic bone?

Broken cheekbone/upper jaw (zygomatic maxillary fracture)
  1. Flatness of the cheek.
  2. Altered sensation underneath the eye on the affected side.
  3. Problems with eyesight.
  4. Pain with jaw movement.

What is the most commonly injured nerve following mandibular fracture?

The mandible is reported to be the most commonly fractured bone of the facial skeleton. Mandibular fractures that occur between the mental and mandibular foramina frequently result in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury.

Which finding can result from a nasal fracture?

When fracture the nasal cartilage, they can disrupt the perichondrium, causing a septal hematoma, which can lead to various complications such as impairment of nasal airflow, abscess formation, and necrosis that can even perforate the septum.

What is green stick fracture?

A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone bends and cracks, instead of breaking completely into separate pieces. The fracture looks similar to what happens when you try to break a small, “green” branch on a tree. Most greenstick fractures occur in children younger than 10 years of age.

What is a hematoma?

A hematoma is a bad bruise. It happens when an injury causes blood to collect and pool under the skin. The pooling blood gives the skin a spongy, rubbery, lumpy feel. A hematoma usually is not a cause for concern. It is not the same thing as a blood clot in a vein, and it does not cause blood clots.

Is a facial contusion serious?

While the typical head or face contusion will not require medical attention, complications do sometimes occur. If you see blood in the whites or irises of your eyes, or if you have a nosebleed after getting a black eye, you should consult a doctor.

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