Malaria Society And Culture

Table of Contents

Malaria Society And Culture

How did malaria affect society?

Once seen as a consequence of poverty, malaria is now regarded as one of its causes. Experts say malaria slows economic growth in Africa by up to 1.3 percent per year. Rural and poor people are especially at risk because they are least likely to have the means to prevent and treat malaria.

Which of the following is a cultural practice that has had an impact on the spread of malaria in West Africa?

Which of the following is a cultural practice that has had an impact on the spread of malaria in West Africa? – A diet that included yams made people more susceptible to malaria.

What are the economic factors of malaria?

Costs to governments include maintenance, supply and staffing of health facilities; purchase of drugs and supplies; public health interventions against malaria, such as insecticide spraying or distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets; lost days of work with resulting loss of income; and lost opportunities for joint …

How is a person’s daily life affected by malaria?

Once inside a person’s red blood cells, the parasites continue to multiply and spread the infection. Infected red blood cells eventually rupture, causing a person to experience flu-like symptoms that include sweating, high fevers and chills, and nausea. As the disease progresses, a person’s spleen and liver enlarge.

What are the social causes of malaria?

Various socio-demographic factors, such as ethnic groups, parents’ education levels and occupation, use of personal protective measures and family living standards are important risk factors for malaria transmission and epidemics [16].

How did malaria spread globally?

Malaria is a disease that is transmitted from person to person by infected mosquitoes. The bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito transmits a parasite that enters the victim’s blood system and travels into the person’s liver where the parasite reproduces.

How do you deal with malaria in the community?

The main current measures are focused on reduction of the contact between mosquitoes and humans, the destruction of larvae by environmental management and the use of larvicides or mosquito larvae predators, and destruction of adult mosquitoes by indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets.

Why malaria is a public health concern?

Malaria is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are most affected. As of 2004, 107 countries and territories have reported malaria transmission.

What are the environmental factors of malaria?

Natural Environment. Climate-based factors, temperature and precipitation, are the primary environmental determinants of malaria. Temperature impacts vector and parasite development and thus is an important constraint on the geographical suitability to malaria (Gething et al. 2011).

Why does malaria cause poverty?

The impact of malaria is not only felt in terms of the human suffering and death it causes, but also by the significant economic cost and burden to both families/ households and national economies. Malaria slows economic growth and development and perpetuates the vicious cycle of poverty.

Is malaria a pandemic or epidemic?

HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria shouldn’t be labeled as just epidemics or endemic. They are pandemics that have been beaten in rich countries.

Why is malaria common in poor countries?

The High Cost of Malaria

Malaria is directly related to poverty and economic inequality in underdeveloped countries due to the exponential costs that these countries must face by both individuals and governments.

How does malaria affect education?

Analysis showed that malaria is the primary cause of school absences. Fixed-effects estimates showed that asymptomatic malaria and the presence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites had a direct causal correlation with educational achievement and cognitive performance.

Does malaria affect immune system?

Plasmodium, the parasite responsible for malaria, impairs the ability of key cells of the immune system to trigger an efficient immune response. This might explain why patients with malaria are susceptible to a wide range of other infections and fail to respond to several vaccines.

What are the social impacts of malaria in Africa?

It keeps households in poverty, discourages domestic and foreign investment and tourism, affects land use patterns, and reduces productivity through lost work days and diminished job performance.

What are the social determinants of health?

Social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. They include factors like socioeconomic status, education, neighborhood and physical environment, employment, and social support networks, as well as access to health care (Figure 1).

What is the epidemiology of malaria?

Malaria occurs primarily in tropical and some subtropical regions of Africa, Central and South America, Asia, and Oceania. There is tremendous geographic variation in intensity of transmission and risk of infection. Human malaria is caused by one or more parasites: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P.

How does malaria affect the economy of a country?

Malaria discourages investments and tourism, affects land use patterns and crop selection resulting in sub-optimal agricultural production, reduces labor productivity, and impairs learning. Malaria can strain national economies, impacting some nations’ gross domestic product by as much as an estimated 56%.

Is malaria a global issue?

What is the global impact of malaria? In 2016, an estimated 216 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 445,000 people died, mostly children in the African Region. About 1,700 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States each year.

Why is malaria more common in rural areas?

Poor people living in rural areas who lack access to health care are at greater risk for this disease. As a result of all these factors, an estimated 90% of deaths due to malaria occur in Africa south of the Sahara; most of these deaths occur in children under 5 years of age.

How can we prevent malaria in rural areas?

The methods used in malaria prevention included mosquito coils (72%), cleaning and prevention of water stagnation (62%), mosquito spray (54%), and mosquito net (59%).

How can we aware people about malaria?

  2. Malaria Precautions. Many Malaria cases and deaths are.
  3. PREVENTABLE. Prevention methods include.
  4. Avoid bites. Bed nets. Repellents. …
  5. Being outside from. DUSK TO DAWN.
  6. Mosquito breeding. areas such as. STAGNANT WATERS. …
  7. up as much as is practical. Taking INFANTS and. …
  8. malaria areas. SMELLS that attract.

Why is it important to know about malaria?

Key facts. Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is preventable and curable. In 2020, there were an estimated 241 million cases of malaria worldwide.

Is malaria a disease of poverty?

New research has found that wherever malaria occurs, the poorest children within the world’s most impoverished communities are twice as likely to contract malaria than the least poor.

What environment is best for malaria?

In dry climates, heavy rainfall can provide good breeding conditions for the mosquitoes. Increased humidity, droughts may turn rivers into strings of pools, the preferred breeding sites of mosquitos. In some areas, heavy rainfall can wash out the breeding sites and reduce the incidence of malaria.

What type of infectious agent is malaria?


Malaria in humans is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, or P. malariae.

Is malaria determined by wealth?

The wealth index still predicted malaria risk after excluding variables directly associated with malaria, but the strength of association was lower. In this setting, wealth indices, income, and education were stronger predictors of socioeconomic differences in malaria risk than occupation.

Is malaria a virus or bacteria?

A: Malaria is not caused by a virus or bacteria. Malaria is caused by a parasite known as Plasmodium, which is normally spread through infected mosquitoes. A mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected human, taking in Plasmodia which are in the blood.

Is malaria a communicable disease?

Malaria is a communicable disease transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito and these infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite which is transmitted to the bloodstream of person when a mosquito bites.

How does malaria interfere with education for many students?

Working with five to six year-old children, they also observed that the performance at school entry was poorer in children with history of five or more malarial attacks [15]. These results suggest that repeated malarial attacks are able to produce a negative and cumulative effect on school performance.

How does malaria cause immunosuppression?

Several reports have demonstrated immunosuppression during malaria infection in patients and animal models [914]. We [21] and others [20] have shown that DC activation and function is suppressed by infection or malaria pigment and, as a consequence, T cell and B cell responses fail to develop effectively.

What body systems does malaria affect?

Malaria can damage the kidneys or liver or cause the spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening. Anemia. Malaria may result in not having enough red blood cells for an adequate supply of oxygen to your body’s tissues (anemia).

Can you get malaria twice?

You can get malaria more than once. Even if you have had the disease in the past you still need to take precautions when you travel to a malaria area. People who grow up in a risk area do develop some level of immunity and they are less likely to contract malaria as they grow older.

What is social burden of disease?

Definition. The term burden of disease generally describes the total, cumulative consequences of a defined disease or a range of harmful diseases with respect to disabilities in a community. These consequences include health, social aspects, and costs to society.

What is malaria diagnosis?

Microscopic Diagnosis. Malaria parasites can be identified by examining under the microscope a drop of the patient’s blood, spread out as a blood smear on a microscope slide. Prior to examination, the specimen is stained (most often with the Giemsa stain) to give the parasites a distinctive appearance.

How did malaria impact society?

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports malaria is responsible for one in five deaths of African children under age 5 every year. Malaria takes its toll not only in lives lost, but also in medical costs, lost income, and reduced economic output.

Does malaria affect tourism?

In the 1999/2000 malaria season, 89% of facility operators agreed that malaria had a detrimental influence on the tourism industry. This percentage declined significantly to 42% in the 2002/2003 malaria season; this decline correlates with the substantial malaria reductions in the province (Table 2).

Why is malaria so common in Africa?

Africa is the most affected due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito (Anopheles gambiae complex) is responsible for high transmission. The predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum , which is the species that is most likely to cause severe malaria and death.

What is urban malaria?

Emerging Problem of Malaria in Urban Areas

Haphazard and unplanned growth of towns has resulted in creation of urban slum with poor housing and sanitary conditions promoting vector mosquito breeding potential for malaria, filaria and dengue fever/ Dengue haemorrhagic fever.

How does urbanization affect malaria?

The process of urbanization and accompanying demographic change is associated with decreased risks of infection due to reduction of suitable breeding grounds for malaria vectors through reduction of vegetative cover, water surfaces and other natural surfaces with building structures and other paved surfaces as well as …

What is malaria introduction?

Introduction. Malaria is caused by the parasitic protozoan Plasmodium. It is a vector-borne disease which is transmitted from person to person via bites from infected mosquitoes. Following a mosquito bite the parasites multiply in the liver and subsequently infect red blood cells.

How can malaria be controlled and prevented?

Prevention of malaria
  1. Wear full sleeve protective clothing.
  2. Spray insect repellants on your exposed skin. …
  3. Use a mosquito net over the bed if your bedroom isn’t air-conditioned or screened. …
  4. When you go out, in addition to spraying insect repellants on your exposed skin, you can also spray on your clothing.

What is Ghana doing about malaria?

Ghana boasts an updated electronic District Health Information Management System, which has improved malaria data quality, timely reporting, and completeness. Laboratory confirmation has also improved significantly with 77 percent of malaria outpatient cases confirmed in 2016.

How do you deal with malaria in the community?

The main current measures are focused on reduction of the contact between mosquitoes and humans, the destruction of larvae by environmental management and the use of larvicides or mosquito larvae predators, and destruction of adult mosquitoes by indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets.

What is the conclusion of malaria?

Conclusion. Malaria is an enormous global disease burden, and its eradication is an ambitious goal.

What are the 10 complications of malaria?

Other complications
  • liver failure and jaundice yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes.
  • shock a sudden drop in blood pressure.
  • pulmonary oedema a build-up of fluid in the lungs.
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • low blood sugar hypoglycaemia.
  • kidney failure.
  • swelling and rupturing of the spleen.

What is malaria CDC?

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. Mosquitoes spread the parasite to people. Malaria symptoms usually appear within in 7 to 30 days but can take up to one year to develop. Symptoms may include high fevers and shaking chills, flu-like illness.

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