Cleisthenes

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History of Cleisthenes

What was Cleisthenes known for?

Cleisthenes of Athens, Cleisthenes also spelled Clisthenes, (born c. 570 bcedied c. 508), statesman regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy, serving as chief archon (highest magistrate) of Athens (525524).

What did the reform of Cleisthenes do?

Cleisthenes’ basic reform was to reorganize the entire citizen body into 10 new tribes, each of which was to contain elements drawn from the whole of Attica.

What did Cleisthenes do for Athens?

Through Cleisthenes’ reforms, the people of Athens endowed their city with isonomic institutionsequal rights for all citizens (though only free men were citizens)and established ostracism as a punishment.

Was Cleisthenes a leader?

Cleisthenes (active 6th century B.C.) was an Athenian political leader and constitutional reformer. The first avowed democratic leader, he introduced important changes into the Athenian constitution.

How did Cleisthenes come to power?

Cleisthenes first came to political prominence when he was made archon, a high administrative official, in 525 BCE during the reign of the tyrant Hippias. However, when the Alcmaeonid family fell out of favour with the ruling regime Cleisthenes went into exile.

Who was Cleisthenes wife?

After these unfortunate events, Megacles of the Alcmaeonid clan was chosen to marry Agariste, who gave birth to two sons, Hippocrates and Cleisthenes, the reformer of the Athenian democracy.

What did Cleisthenes believe in?

In the year 507 B.C., the Athenian leader Cleisthenes introduced a system of political reforms that he called demokratia, or rule by the people (from demos, the people, and kratos, or power). It was the first known democracy in the world.

Why did Cleisthenes create the 10 tribes?

Finally, in order to encourage unity between the different parts of Attica – the city of Athens, the inland farms and the coastal villages – Cleisthenes ensured that each of the 10 tribes were composed of two demes from each of these three areas (a total of six demes per tribe).

Who did Cleisthenes overthrow?

Cleisthenes’ supporters and the ordinary Athenian citizens revolted against Isagoras’ tyranny, and ended up trapping Isagoras and his Spartan allies on the Acropolis for two days.

How did Sparta differ from Athens?

The main difference between Athens and Sparta is their government, economy, and society. Athenian society, which was based on trade, valued art and culture and was ruled under a form of democracy. Spartan society, on the other hand, was a militant society whose economy was based on farming and conquering.

When was the Golden Age of Athens?

The golden age of Athenian culture is usually dated from 449 to 431 B.C., the years of relative peace between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. After the second Persian invasion of Greece in 479, Athens and its allies throughout the Aegean formed the Delian League, a military alliance focused on the Persian threat.

How many helots were in Sparta?

The total population of helots at that time, including women, is estimated as 170,000224,000. Since the helot population was not technically chattel, their population was reliant on native birth rates, as opposed to prisoners of war or purchased slaves.

Who was Cleisthenes for kids?

Cleisthenes was a noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family. He reformed the constitution of Athens, and set it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC. For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as “the father of Athenian democracy”.

When did Solon rule?

Solon was one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece and dominated Athenian politics for several decades, becoming the city’s chief magistrate in the early years of the 6th century BC (594-3 BC).

Why is Pericles important?

Pericles was an Athenian statesman who played a large role in developing democracy in Athens and helped make it the political and cultural center of ancient Greece. Pericles was born in 495 B.C.E. in Athens to an aristocratic family.

Why did Cleisthenes want to overthrow Hippias?

In response Hippias became an increasingly brutal and savage dictator. After long years of waiting, Cleisthenes at last saw his opportunity. Calling in a favour owed him by the Oracle of Delphi, the greatest shrine in all Greece, he managed to obtain Spartan help and overthrew Hippias, who fled to Asia Minor.

Who were the helots and what did they do?

helot, a state-owned serf of the ancient Spartans. The ethnic origin of helots is uncertain, but they were probably the original inhabitants of Laconia (the area around the Spartan capital) who were reduced to servility after the conquest of their land by the numerically fewer Dorians.

What did Demes create?

Demes were combined within the same area to make trittyes, larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.

Did Pericles have any kids?

Who was Pericles first wife?

Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War.
Pericles
Spouse(s) Aspasia of Miletus
Children Paralus and Xanthippus Pericles the Younger
Relations Xanthippus (father) Agriste (mother)

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How many Athenians could vote?

Size and make-up of the Athenian population

Citizen families could have amounted to 100,000 people and out of these some 30,000 would have been the adult male citizens entitled to vote in the assembly.

What did Isagoras do?

In reality Isagoras ruled as the head of an oligarchy of three hundred noblemen, who in turn relied upon the military backing of Sparta. Under instructions from the Spartan king, Cleomenes, the first task of the new government was to banish Cleisthenes’ most powerful allies.

What did Herodotus write about and how did he write it?

What did Herodotus write? Herodotus’s History is an account of the Greco-Persian Wars (499479 BCE) and the story of the growth and organization of the Persian empire.

Who won and lost the Peloponnesian wars?

Athens was forced to surrender, and Sparta won the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. Spartans terms were lenient. First, the democracy was replaced by on oligarchy of thirty Athenians, friendly to Sparta.

Did Persia ever have control of Athens?

The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars, began in 492 BC, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.

First Persian invasion of Greece.
Date 492 490 BC.
Location Thrace, Macedon, Cyclades, Euboea, Attica
Result Persian victory in Thrace and Macedon Persian failure to capture Athens

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How did Cleisthenes divide Athens?

In order to break such loyalties, Cleisthenes divided the 140-200 demes (natural divisions of Attica) into 3 regions: city, coast, and inland. In each of the 3 regions, the demes were divided into 10 groups called trittyes. Each trittys was called by the name of its chief deme.

How many Demes did Athens have?

Although Athens and Attica were already divided into demes before Cleisthenes reformed the culture, they played an even bigger role during his reforms. He divided the countryside into three zones that had a total of 139 demes. From there, the demes were subdivided 30 groups, called trittys.

Who is Socrates philosophy?

Socrates (/?s?kr?ti?z/; Greek: ????????; c. 470399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens who is credited as the founder of Western philosophy and among the first moral philosophers of the ethical tradition of thought.

What Spartan has come to mean?

The word spartan means self-restrained, simple, frugal and austere. The word laconic, which means pithy and concise, is derived from the Spartans, who prized brevity of speech.

Who won Sparta or Athens?

It would be another decade of warfare before the Spartan general Lysander defeated the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami. This defeat led to Athenian surrender. As a result, the Peloponnesian War was concluded. Simultaneous to the end of this conflict came the end of the golden age of ancient Greece.

Who won the Persian war?

Though the outcome of battles seemed to tip in Persia’s favor (such as the famed battle at Thermopylae where a limited number of Spartans managed to wage an impressive stand against the Persians), the Greeks won the war. There are two factors that helped the Greeks defeat the Persian Empire.

Who was enslaved in Athens?

Athens had the largest slave population, with as many as 80,000 in the 5th and 6th centuries BC, with an average of three or four slaves per household, except in poor families. Slaves were legally prohibited from participating in politics, which was reserved for citizens.

When did Athens fall?

Although Athens was enjoying a golden age while led by Pericles, this soon came to an end and thus began the fall of Athens. That fall began in 431 B.C.E. when the 27 year long Peloponnesian War began.

Why can Athens be called a city of contrasts?

Why can Athens be called a city of contrasts? People lived in small, uncomfortable houses that lined the narrow streets. It also smelled because people threw trash into the streets. City’s public spaces/buildings were large, stately, and beautiful.

Who was known as the father of history?

Herodotus is undoubtedly the Father of History. Born in Halicarnassus in Ionia in the 5th century B.C., he wrote The Histories. In this text are found his inquiries which later became to modern scholars to mean facts of history. He is best known for recounting, very objectively, the Greco-Persian wars of the …

Do Spartans still exist?

But today there is still a town called Sparta in Greece in the very same spot as the ancient city. So, in a way, Spartans still exist, although these days they tend to be a little less strict and certainly not as good at fighting with spears and shields as the ancients.

Who did the Spartans subjugate?

In Ancient Sparta, the Helots were a subjugated population of slaves. Formerly warriors, the Helots outnumbered the Spartans considerably. During the time of the Battle of Plataea, which took place in 479 B.C., there were seven Helots for every Spartan.

What do helots mean?

Definition of helot

1 Helot : a member of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta. 2 : someone held in forced servitude : an enslaved person or serf.

Which country is the father of democracy?

The concepts (and name) of democracy and constitution as a form of government originated in ancient Athens circa 508 BCE.

What did Socrates invent?

He is known for creating Socratic irony and the Socratic method (elenchus). He is best recognized for inventing the teaching practice of pedagogy, wherein a teacher questions a student in a manner that draws out the correct response.

What is the top of the Parthenon called?

Dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, the Parthenon sits high atop a compound of temples known as the Acropolis of Athens.

Did Solon create a constitution?

The Solonian Constitution was created by Solon in the early 6th century BC. … Solon wanted to revise or abolish the older laws of Draco. He promulgated a code of laws embracing the whole of public and private life, the salutary effects of which lasted long after the end of his constitution.

What did Solon do that was bad?

To prevent poor workers slipping into slavery, Solon also forbade the use of one’s person or family members as security on loans. Those hektemoroi who had become slaves through debt were freed from their bondage.

Is Solon the father of democracy?

Solon laid the basis for democracy through eliminating debt slavery. He also probably established the Council of 400. Also, he gave every citizen the right to appeal the verdicts of magistrates before the assembly. He is sometimes credited with introducing sortition as well, but that is doubtful.

What is the Golden Age of man?

The Golden Age was the mythical first period of man. The people of the Golden Age were formed by or for the Titan Cronus, whom the Romans called Saturn. Mortals lived like gods, never knowing sorrow or toil; when they died, it as if they were falling asleep.

Was Pericles a real person?

Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athensdied 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece.

Who were citizens of Athens?

The Athenian definition of citizens was also different from modern-day citizens: only free men were considered citizens in Athens. Women, children, and slaves were not considered citizens and therefore could not vote. Each year 500 names were chosen from all the citizens of ancient Athens.

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