Cervical Cancer Epidemiology
What is the epidemiology of cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is most frequently diagnosed in women between the ages of 35 and 44 with the average age at diagnosis being 50 . It rarely develops in women younger than 20. Many older women do not realize that the risk of developing cervical cancer is still present as they age.
Where is cervical cancer most prevalent?
Cervical cancer is the fourth most commonly occurring cancer in women and the eighth most commonly occurring cancer overall. There were over 500,000 new cases in 2018.
Cervical cancer rates.
Cervical cancer rates.
|Rank||Country||Age-standardised rate per 100,000|
What is causing the increased incidence of cervical cancer?
Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV. Other things also can increase your risk of cervical cancer. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a common virus that can be passed from one person to another during sex. There are many types of HPV.
Which is the most prevalent risk factor for cervical cancer?
The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with HPV. HPV is common.
What epidemiology means?
By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
What is the pathophysiology of cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer begins in the cells of the cervix. Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.
What are the symptoms of HPV in females?
HPV can infect cells in the vagina and around the vulva. If a female has low risk HPV, they may see warts on the vulva. These warts may present as: a cluster that looks like a cauliflower.
Some symptoms of vaginal cancer include :
Some symptoms of vaginal cancer include :
- bleeding after sex.
- unusual discharge.
- a lump in the vagina.
- pain while having sex.
Which country has the highest rate of HPV?
With an estimated 18.6/100,000 cases of CC attributable to HPV in 2018, Africa (31.5/100,000 women/year), specifically SSA (75.3/100,000 women/year), had the highest incidence rate, and Asia (10.2/100,000 women/year) the lowest (7).
Is breast or cervical cancer more common?
Still, every year, approximately 12,000 women in the U.S. are diagnosed with cervical cancer and almost 4,000 die from cervical cancer4. Breast cancer is currently the most common cancer among women of all races and ethnicities.
What is the gold standard for cervical cancer?
For over 50 years, cervical cytology has been the gold standard for cervical cancer screening. Because of its profound effect on cervical cancer mortality in nations that have adopted screening programs, the Pap smear is widely accepted as the model screening test.
What makes you high risk for HPV?
Certain people are at higher risk for HPV-related health problems. This includes gay and bisexual men and people with weak immune systems (including those who have HIV/AIDS). Most HPV infections that lead to cancer can be prevented with vaccines. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by regular screening.
Is cervical cancer an epidemic?
Cervical Cancer as a Global Concern Contributions of the Dual Epidemics of HPV and HIV. Cancer of the uterine cervix is among the most preventable human malignancies,1,2 yet it remains a leading cause of death among women worldwide, accounting for more than 300 000 deaths annually.
Can anything other than HPV cause cervical cancer?
But HPV is not the only cause of cervical cancer. Most women with HPV don’t get cervical cancer, and other risk factors, like smoking and HIV infection, influence which women exposed to HPV are more likely to develop cervical cancer.
What type of cells in the cervix does HPV infect?
HPV has been implicated in 99.7% of cervical squamous cell cancer cases worldwide (124). Adenocarcinomas of the cervix are also related to HPV, but the correlation is less pronounced and is age dependent (3).
What are the two types of epidemiology?
Epidemiologic studies fall into two categories: experimental and observational.
What are the 5 main objectives of epidemiology?
In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.
What is another word for epidemiology?
epizootiological, endemic, contagious, epizootic.
What is the function of the cervix?
The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina. Part of the lining of the cervix contains glands that make and release mucus. For most of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, the mucus is thick and stops sperm from entering the uterus.
What are the two main ways of diagnosing cervical cancer?
The following tests may be used to diagnose cervical cancer:
- Bimanual pelvic examination and sterile speculum examination. In this examination, the doctor will check for any unusual changes in the patient’s cervix, uterus, vagina, ovaries, and other nearby organs. …
- Pap test. …
- HPV typing test. …
- Colposcopy. …
What causes HPV in females?
You can get HPV by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the virus. It is most commonly spread during vaginal or anal sex. It also spreads through close skin-to-skin touching during sex. A person with HPV can pass the infection to someone even when they have no signs or symptoms.
What color is HPV discharge?
Increased vaginal discharge, which may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling. Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex, douching or a pelvic exam.
Does HPV have a smell?
Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor.
What are the 14 high-risk HPV types?
High-risk HPVs can cause several types of cancer. There are about 14 high-risk HPV types including HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68. Two of these, HPV16 and HPV18, are responsible for most HPV-related cancers.
Why is HPV incurable?
HPV can clear up naturally as there is no cure for the underlying HPV infection, the only way to get rid of HPV is to wait for the immune system to clear the virus naturally.
Does having HPV mean my partner cheated?
Having HPV does not mean that a person or their partner is having sex outside the current relationship. There is no treatment to eliminate HPV itself. HPV is usually dealt with by your body’s immune system.
Is HPV more common in males or females?
HPV, including high-risk HPV, is significantly more prevalent in males than in females in the United States, although rates vary by age and race or ethnicity, according to recent findings.
What age does cervical cancer occur?
Cervical cancer is most often diagnosed between the ages of 35 and 44. The average age of diagnosis in the United States is 50. About 20% of cervical cancers are diagnosed after age 65. These cases usually occur in people who did not receive regular cervical cancer screenings before age 65.
Is HPV 12 high risk?
HPV type is a well established risk factor determinant for progression to cervical cancer. Over 40 HPV types infect the anogenital tract, 15 of which have been classified as high-risk for development of cervical cancer, 3 as probable high-risk, 12 as low-risk and 3 as undetermined-risk (4, 5) (Table 1).
Is cervical cancer preventable?
More than 12,000 women get cervical cancer every year. Up to 93% of cervical cancers are preventable. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination helps prevent infection with the HPV types that cause most cervical cancers.
What happens if cervical biopsy is positive?
However, if you recently had a cervical biopsy, you may need repeated Pap and HPV testing sooner. A positive test, on the other hand, means that cancer or precancerous cells have been found and further diagnosis and treatment may be needed.
Do I need a colposcopy if I have HPV?
HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a virus that may raise your risk for certain types of cancer, including cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. Your doctor may also recommend a colposcopy if you have symptoms or signs of cervical, vaginal, or vulvar cancer.
What is Vili in cervical cancer screening?
Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol’s iodine (VILI) are used to screen women for cervical cancer in low-resource settings. Little is known about correlates of their diagnostic accuracy by healthcare provider.
Can a man give a woman HPV?
Yes, human papillomavirus (HPV) can be transmitted from a woman to man and vice versa. HPV can affect anybody who has sex with an infected person.
Can you get HPV from fingers?
HPV can also be transmitted by the fingers. A patient or their partner may have HPV on the skin of their fingers from touching a touching an infected area. Alternatively, they may have HPV underneath their nails.
Does HPV cause itching?
They may itch but rarely cause pain. These warts appear as darkened areas of the skin with slightly raised, flat tops. They can crop up anywhere on the body. These warts may appear irritated, hard, and grainy.
Can HPV cause infertility?
When left untreated, many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can lead to infertility. However, HPV shouldn’t affect your ability to conceive. Although you may have heard that HPV can lead to fertility problems, that’s generally not the case. Some strains of HPV can increase the risk of cervical cancer.
What’s the difference between HPV 16 and 18?
HPV 16 and HPV 18
HPV 16 is the most common high-risk type of HPV and usually doesn’t result in any noticeable symptoms, even though it can bring about cervical changes. It causes 50 percent of cervical cancers worldwide. HPV 18 is another high-risk type of HPV.
What is HPV Wiki?
Human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection) is caused by a DNA virus from the Papillomaviridae family. Many HPV infections cause no symptoms and 90% resolve spontaneously within two years. However, in some cases, an HPV infection persists and results in either warts or precancerous lesions.
Can HPV be cured?
There is no cure for the virus (HPV) itself. There are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause, such as genital warts, cervical changes, and cervical cancer. What should I know about genital warts? There are many treatment choices for genital warts.
What does it mean if your Pap is normal but HPV is positive?
Positive. A positive HPV test means you do have an HPV type that may be linked to cervical cancer. This does not mean you have cervical cancer now. But it could be a warning.
How long does it take for HPV to show up after exposure?
According to the CDC, at least 50% of sexually active men and women will get a genital HPV infection at some point in their lives. After a person has been infected by HPV, it may take one to three months (or longer in some cases) for warts to appear.
What is the epidemiology of HPV?
Approximately 14 million new HPV infections occurred annually, with nearly half occurring in persons age 15 through 24 years. During 20132014, genital prevalence of any of 37 HPV types assayed was 45.2% and prevalence of high-risk HPV types was 25.1% among U.S. men age 18 through 59 years.
Is oral HPV the same as cervical HPV?
Initial studies indicate that oral HPV infection, analogously to cervical infection, is associated with sexual behavior and immunosuppression (8, 22). However, some characteristics of oral HPV infection prevalence appear distinct from cervical infection, such as associations with age.
Is HPV a virus or bacteria?
HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a common virus that can cause cancers later in life. You can protect your child from these cancers with HPV vaccine at age 1112 years.