Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

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Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

What is the pathophysiology of breast cancer?

Breast cancer develops due to DNA damage and genetic mutations that can be influenced by exposure to estrogen. Sometimes there will be an inheritance of DNA defects or pro-cancerous genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2. Thus the family history of ovarian or breast cancer increases the risk for breast cancer development.

What is the pathophysiology of cancer?

Cancer is a disease caused when cells divide uncontrollably and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer is caused by changes to DNA. Most cancer-causing DNA changes occur in sections of DNA called genes. These changes are also called genetic changes.

What is the molecular cause of breast cancer?

The predominant form of breast cancer is sporadic in nature, in which oncogenes which are initially mutated lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation (Kenemans et al 2004). Other genetic mutations, especially in tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), are then thought to lead to malignancy.

What is breast cancer summary?

Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer. Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast.

What is the anatomy and physiology of the breast?

The breast is the tissue overlying the chest (pectoral) muscles. Women’s breasts are made of specialized tissue that produces milk (glandular tissue) as well as fatty tissue. The amount of fat determines the size of the breast. The milk-producing part of the breast is organized into 15 to 20 sections, called lobes.

What is breast pathology?

When your breast was biopsied, the samples taken were studied under the microscope by a specialized doctor with many years of training called a pathologist. The pathologist sends your doctor a report that gives a diagnosis for each sample taken.

What is pathophysiology example?

Pathophysiology: Deranged function in an individual or an organ due to a disease. For example, a pathophysiologic alteration is a change in function as distinguished from a structural defect.

What does pathophysiology mean in simple terms?

Definition of pathophysiology

: the physiology of abnormal states specifically : the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease. Other Words from pathophysiology Example Sentences Learn More About pathophysiology.

What does a pathology report tell you?

A pathology report is a document that contains the diagnosis determined by examining cells and tissues under a microscope. The report may also contain information about the size, shape, and appearance of a specimen as it looks to the naked eye. This information is known as the gross description.

What type of mutation is breast cancer?

BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In normal cells, these genes help make proteins that repair damaged DNA. Mutated versions of these genes can lead to abnormal cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Does everyone have BRCA genes?

Everyone has two copies of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, one copy inherited from their mother and one from their father.

How does breast cancer affect the cell cycle?

In the case of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, estrogen drives cell cycle progression by binding to the ER, leading to its dimerization, translocation to the nucleus, and transcriptional activity at estrogen response elements (EREs) [13].

What are the parts of a breast?

The Parts of the Breast
  • What Are Breasts Made Of?
  • Nipple.
  • Areola.
  • Montgomery Glands.
  • Lobes.
  • Milk Ducts.
  • Blood Vessels.
  • Lymph Vessels.

What is the function of the breast?

The breast is an organ whose structure reflects its special function: the production of milk for lactation (breast feeding). The epithelial component of the tissue consists of lobules, where milk is made, which connect to ducts that lead out to the nipple.

What is pink October about?

Pink October is an annual campaign that is extremely important in raising breast cancer awareness. Breast cancer awareness is the first step toward preventing the disease from having an irreversible impact on one’s life. Pink October campaign is extremely important in raising breast cancer awareness.

What is an anatomy and physiology?

Anatomy and physiology are two of the most basic terms and areas of study in the life sciences. Anatomy refers to the internal and external structures of the body and their physical relationships, whereas physiology refers to the study of the functions of those structures.

What is the tail of Spence?

Spence tail is the prolongation of upper outer quadrant of the breast in the axillary direction. It is also called the axillary tail, once it passes through the foramen of Langer, it pierces the axillary fascia. The duct system is seen to extend into the axilla.

What is a Cooper ligament?

Cooper’s ligaments are bands of tough, fibrous, flexible connective tissue that shape and support your breasts. They’re named for Astley Cooper, the British surgeon who described them in 1840. They’re also known as the suspensory ligaments of Cooper and the fibrocollagenous septa.

What is the most common pathological type of breast malignancy?

Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. The malignant cells attempt to form small ducts or tubules to various degrees.

How long does it take for a pathology biopsy of the breast?

Getting the results of your pathology report

Just like the pathology report you received after your biopsy, you will also receive a pathology report after lumpectomy or mastectomy. The results of your pathology report will probably be ready 3 to 7 days after your surgery.

What are the types of breast diseases?

What are breast disorders?
  • Breast pain. The most common type of breast pain is associated with swelling of the breast tissue during the menstrual cycle. …
  • Gynecomastia. …
  • Cysts. …
  • Fibroadenomas. …
  • Fat necrosis. …
  • Sclerosing adenosis. …
  • Generalized breast lumpiness. …
  • Breast tenderness.

What is the basic method of pathophysiology?

The basic method of pathological physiology is a pathophysiological experiment. The role of experiment consists in observing a pathological process from its start to end. A physician cannot trace the disease development from its onset to its end.

What is the etiology of pathophysiology?

Definition. The terms etiology and pathogenesis are closely related to the questions of why and how a certain disease or disorder develops. Models of etiology and pathogenesis therefore try to account for the processes that initiate (etiology) and maintain (pathogenesis) a certain disorder or disease.

What should be included in pathophysiology?

The most important conditions/diseases associated with [disease name] include:
  1. Condition 1: A brief explanation of the condition and its association with the disease.
  2. Condition 2: A brief explanation of the condition and its association with the disease.

Why do nurses need to know pathophysiology?

Nurses use pathophysiology to understand the progression of disease in order to identify the disease and implement treatment options for their patients. Nurses use the information that they find to identify the next course of the disease so that they can provide their patient’s with the appropriate care they need.

What is physiology and pathophysiology?

Physiology is the study of “how” things biologically work in the body. Pathophysiology is the study of “how” things work when things go wrong in the body. To be sure, the latter is interdisciplinary between pathology and physiology.

What is the difference between pathology and physiology?

Physiology is a field of study that explains the various biological mechanisms that operate within an organism. Pathology is another discipline that explores conditions associated with a disease.

What is the difference between biopsy and pathology?

Looking at the tissue sample

The medical staff who perform your biopsy place the specimen in a container with a fluid to preserve it. They label the container with your name and other details. A pathologist then describes how it looks to the naked eye. This includes the color, size, and other features.

What is the next step after a positive breast biopsy?

After the biopsy procedure, the breast tissue is sent to a lab, where a doctor who specializes in analyzing blood and body tissue (pathologist) examines the sample using a microscope and special procedures. The pathologist prepares a pathology report that is sent to your doctor, who will share the results with you.

What if my breast biopsy is positive?

An unclear result means that further testing is needed. Overexpression of HER2 can make breast cancer grow and spread faster. But a positive result means that your treatment can include drugs that target HER2.

What chromosome is breast cancer found on?

In 1990, DNA linkage studies on large families with the above characteristics identified the first gene associated with breast cancer. Scientists named this gene “breast cancer 1” or BRCA1 (pronounced brak-uh). BRCA1 is located on chromosome 17.

Is breast cancer genetic or environmental?

Although scientists have identified many risk factors that increase a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer, they do not yet know what causes normal cells to become cancerous. Experts tend to agree that breast cancer is caused by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

Are there environmental causes of breast cancer?

Although we know of many risk factors that increase women’s chances of developing breast cancer, scientists do not completely understand what causes normal cells to become cancerous. But most experts agree that a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors leads to breast cancer.

Should you get a mastectomy if you have the BRCA gene?

Prophylactic mastectomy can reduce the chances of developing breast cancer in women at high risk of the disease: For women with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, prophylactic mastectomy reduces the risk of developing breast cancer by 90 to 95 percent.

Is BRCA2 worse than BRCA1?

A study found that women with an abnormal BRCA1 gene had a worse prognosis than women with an abnormal BRCA2 gene 5 years after diagnosis. Women with an abnormal BRCA2 gene had a prognosis that was basically the same as women with no abnormal breast cancer genes 5 years after diagnosis.

Which family members have the BRCA2 mutation?

WHO: Your parents, siblings, and children are the family members who are most likely to have the same BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation that you do. Other blood relatives, such as aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and cousins, are also more likely to have the mutation.

What are the 4 stages of the cell cycle?

In eukaryotes, the cell cycle consists of four discrete phases: G1, S, G2, and M. The S or synthesis phase is when DNA replication occurs, and the M or mitosis phase is when the cell actually divides. The other two phases G1 and G2, the so-called gap phases are less dramatic but equally important.

Which is a function of cyclins?

The cyclins are regulatory subunits that bind, activate and provide substrate specificity for their catalytic partner serine-threonine kinases, collectively called cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) (reviewed in refs. 8 and 9).

How does lymphatic system spread the breast cancer?

But the breast’s lymphatic system can also spread diseases such as cancer through the body. Lymphatic vessels provide a highway along which invasive cancerous cells move to other parts of the body. The process is called metastasis. It can lead to the formation of a secondary cancer mass in another part of the body.

How do breast feel when touched?

They’re WarmLike the Rest of You! Your breasts should feel warm (but not hot) to the touch, like the rest of your torso. Take Note: Have a doctor check out any areas of your breasts that are extra warm or reddened.

What is area under breast called?

The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are all linked by thin tubes called ducts. These ducts lead to the nipple in the center of a dark area of skin called the areola. Fat fills the spaces between lobules and ducts. There are no muscles in the breast, but muscles lie under each breast and cover the ribs.

Why do men have nipples?

Men have nipples because embryos are always female in their early stages, and males only differentiate from the female prototype after a few weeks. Unfortunately the problem with these explanations wasn’t just their banality. They are merely accounts of how things happen, not actually why.

What is a female chest called?

Definitions of female chest. the chest of a woman. synonyms: bust. type of: chest, pectus, thorax. the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates.

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