Barth Syndrome

Barth Syndrome

Barth syndrome is a rare condition characterized by an enlarged and weakened heart (dilated cardiomyopathy ), weakness in muscles used for movement (skeletal myopathy), recurrent infections due to small numbers of white blood cells (neutropenia), and short stature. Barth syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males.Nov 24, 2021

What is the survival rate of Barth syndrome?

Specifically, the survival rate was 70% for patients born after 2000 and 20% for those born before 2000. Conclusions: This survey found that BTHS outcome was affected by cardiac events and by a risk of infection that was related to neutropenia.

What causes Barth syndrome?

Barth syndrome is caused by changes (mutations) in the TAZ gene and has an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 1983, multiple boys from a Dutch family were reported with enlarged and weakened heart (dilated cardiomyopathy), low white blood cells (neutropenia) and fatigue and weakness of muscles (hypotonia).

Is Barth syndrome fatal?

The disorder was once considered uniformly fatal in infancy, but some individuals are now living much longer. Severe infections and cardiac failure are common causes of death in affected children. Early and accurate diagnosis is key to prolonged survival for boys born with Barth syndrome.

When is Barth syndrome diagnosed?

An elevated urinary level of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-methylglutaconic aciduria) has been recognized as a diagnostic sign of Barth syndrome. Persistent low levels of neutrophils in the blood help to confirm the diagnosis in combination with these other signs. Diagnosis may also be confirmed via genetic testing .

Is Barth syndrome Rare?

Barth syndrome is a rare condition characterized by an enlarged and weakened heart (dilated cardiomyopathy ), weakness in muscles used for movement (skeletal myopathy), recurrent infections due to small numbers of white blood cells (neutropenia), and short stature. Barth syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males.

Why does Barth syndrome only affect males?

The inheritance of Barth syndrome follows an X-linked (or sex-linked) recessive pattern in which females can be carriers of a TAZ mutation but only males will have the disease. Because females have two copies of the X chromosome, they also have two copies of every gene on the X chromosome.

Can Barth syndrome be treated?

There is no cure or specific treatment for Barth syndrome. Treatment focuses on reducing symptoms and preventing complications. These treatments may include: physical therapy to help babies with reduced muscle tone.

How does Barth syndrome affect cellular respiration?

Barth describes lower respiratory rates in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria in BTHS patients. Decreased respiration and reduced activity of single respiratory enzymes have subsequently confirmed in several models of BTHS including BTHS patient derived fibroblasts and lymphoblasts and cellular and animal models.

Is Barth syndrome mitochondrial disease?

Barth syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 302060) is an ultra-rare, infantile-onset, X-linked recessive mitochondrial disorder (MID), primarily affecting males, due to variants in a nuclear DNA-located gene encoding for the cardiolipin transacylase tafazzin (TAZ),1 which has been initially termed G4.

Who discovered Barth syndrome?

Dr Peter Barth first described a triad of cardiomyopathy (CM), skeletal myopathy and neutropenia in 1983 in a large Dutch kindred with high infant mortality due to infection or cardiac failure[1], although the first description of the disorder now widely known as Barth Syndrome (BTHS) may have occurred in 1979[2].

What is SMS syndrome?

Summary. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex developmental disorder that affects multiple organ systems of the body. The disorder is characterized by a pattern of abnormalities that are present at birth (congenital) as well as behavioral and cognitive problems.

How do people get Pompe?

Pompe disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits a non-working gene from each parent. If an individual receives one working gene and one non-working gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease.

Is cardiomyopathy cardiovascular disease?

Cardiomyopathy (kahr-dee-o-my-OP-uh-thee) is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure. The main types of cardiomyopathy include dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy.

Is Bartter syndrome hereditary?

Bartter syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that both copies of the disease-causing gene (one inherited from each parent) have a mutation in an affected individual.

What genetic disorder does not appear until later in life?

What Is Klinefelter Syndrome? Klinefelter syndrome is a fairly common genetic condition found in males only. Many boys with Klinefelter syndrome also known as XXY syndrome have no signs or symptoms, and some don’t even know they have it until later in life.

What is Polymyopathy?

Polymyositis (pol-e-my-o-SY-tis) is an uncommon inflammatory disease that causes muscle weakness affecting both sides of your body. Having this condition can make it difficult to climb stairs, rise from a seated position, lift objects or reach overhead.

Is dilated cardiomyopathy heart disease?

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that usually starts in your heart’s main pumping chamber (left ventricle). The ventricle stretches and thins (dilates) and can’t pump blood as well as a healthy heart can.

How does Krabbe disease affect the body?

Krabbe (KRAH-buh) disease is an inherited disorder that destroys the protective coating (myelin) of nerve cells in the brain and throughout the nervous system. In most cases, signs and symptoms of Krabbe disease develop in babies before 6 months of age, and the disease usually results in death by age 2.

What is Methylglutaconic aciduria?

Definition. 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA) type I is an inborn error of leucine metabolism with a variable clinical phenotype ranging from mildly delayed speech to psychomotor retardation, coma, failure to thrive, metabolic acidosis and dystonia .

What does Cri du Chat mean?

Cri-du-chat (cat’s cry) syndrome, also known as 5p- (5p minus) syndrome, is a chromosomal condition that results when a piece of chromosome 5 is missing . Infants with this condition often have a high-pitched cry that sounds like that of a cat.

What is the inheritance pattern of Bloom syndrome?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern , which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

What is Fabry disease?

Fabry disease is an inherited disorder that results from the buildup of a particular type of fat, called globotriaosylceramide, in the body’s cells. Beginning in childhood, this buildup causes signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body.

How does Barth syndrome affect the mitochondria?

Barth syndrome lymphoblasts have impaired mitochondrial functions. The lack of mature cardiolipin led to changes in electron transport chain stability. A compensatory increase in mitochondrial content prevents a decrease ATP synthesis.

What is Farber’s disease?

Farber’s disease, also known as Farber’s lipogranulomatosis, describes a group of inherited metabolic disorders called lipid storage diseases, in which excess amounts of lipids (oils, fatty acids, and related compounds) build up to harmful levels in the joints, tissues, and central nervous system.

What is Mowat Wilson syndrome?

Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. Major signs of this disorder frequently include distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, delayed development, an intestinal disorder called Hirschsprung disease, and other birth defects.

What is Miller dieker syndrome?

Miller-Dieker syndrome is a condition characterized by a pattern of abnormal brain development known as lissencephaly. Normally the exterior of the brain (cerebral cortex ) is multi-layered with folds and grooves. People with lissencephaly have an abnormally smooth brain with fewer folds and grooves.

What is Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome?

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body. This condition is characterized by distinctive facial features, small head size (microcephaly), intellectual disability or learning problems, and behavioral problems.

Is Pompe disease fatal?

Pompe disease is a rare (estimated at 1 in every 40,000 births), inherited and often fatal disorder that disables the heart and skeletal muscles. It is caused by mutations in a gene that makes an enzyme called acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA).

Can you survive Pompe disease?

Patients with classic infantile-onset type rarely live past 1 year of age. Patients with non-classic infantileonset type may live to early childhood. Children with late-onset types of Pompe disease can live longer as the disease progresses more slowly.

Is Pompe disease curable?

Unfortunately, no cure exists. However, Pompe disease has benefited from the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which, although expensive, is a major therapeutic advance.

What are 4 signs of cardiomyopathy?

Signs and symptoms of cardiomyopathy include:
  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing, especially with physical exertion.
  • Fatigue.
  • Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen and veins in the neck.
  • Dizziness.
  • Lightheadedness.
  • Fainting during physical activity.
  • Arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)

Is cardiomyopathy a death sentence?

Normally, when people look up cardiomyopathy, they’re terrified by talk of a five-year life expectancy. That’s nonsense. As long as you’re diagnosed early, it’s definitely not a death sentence.

How long can you live with cardiomyopathy?

In general, about half of all people diagnosed with congestive heart failure will survive five years. About 30% will survive for 10 years. In patients who receive a heart transplant, about 21% of patients are alive 20 years later.

Can adults get Bartter syndrome?

It occurs mostly in childhood or adolescence, and initial presentation in patients over 40 years of age was very rare2). Bartter’s syndrome is a rare cause of chronic hypokalemic alkalosis in adults.

What is the treatment for Bartter syndrome?

Bartter syndrome is treated by eating foods rich in potassium or taking potassium supplements. Many people also need salt and magnesium supplements. Medicine may be needed that blocks the kidney’s ability to get rid of potassium. High doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be used.

How can you tell between Bartter and Gitelman?

The two syndromes differ biochemically in that children with Bartter syndrome commonly demonstrate hypercalciuria with normal serum magnesium levels, whereas those with Gitelman syndrome typically show low urinary calcium excretion and low serum magnesium levels.

Is Turner syndrome fatal?

There’s no cure for Turner syndrome but many of the associated symptoms can be treated. Girls and women with Turner syndrome will need to have their heart, kidneys and reproductive system checked regularly throughout their lives. However, it’s usually possible to lead a relatively normal and healthy life.

CAN XXY have babies?

It is possible that an XXY male could get a woman pregnant naturally. Although sperm are found in more than 50% of men with KS3, low sperm production could make conception very difficult.

Can females have XXY syndrome?

Klinefelter syndrome affects males only; females cannot have it. Klinefelter syndrome results from a genetic abnormality in which males have an extra copy of the X chromosome. Instead of the usual XY chromosomes, males with Klinefelter syndrome have an XXY pattern.

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